Experimental biology with live animals is a critical component of scientific efforts to link contemporary observations with past behaviors, environments and climates.

My research includes experimental work with large herbivores to test the links between environmental, body, and tooth chemistry fluxes. A goal and outcome of this approach is a refined scale linking measured fossil isotopic values to seasonal patterns body chemistry, feeding, and hydrological patterns in the past.

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A population of sheep that I was privileged to raise and work with in Concord, Massachusetts.